Goldfish (Carassius auratus) is rightfully the most recognizable species of ornamental fish, which occupies an honorable first place in the list of the most popular aquarium inhabitants.
|Scientific name||Carassius auratus|
|Common names||goldfish, asian carp|
|Life in nature||in slow-moving, freshwater bodies of water|
|Size||1-2 inch long up to 6 inches/ 15cm|
|Tank size||minimum 50 L or 10 gallons|
|Life span||10-15 years|
|Temperature||optimal 18-23 C or 64-74 °F|
|pH||6.0 - 8.0|
|dGH||8.0 - 25.0|
|Color||golden orange, red, dark, white, etc...|
|Breeding||medium hardness/ needs separate aquarium|
|Temperament||peaceful but can eat plants|
|Maturity||1 year age/ best are for breeding 2 to 4 years|
|Eggs||up to 3000 eggs/ size up to 1 mm/|
- 1 General information
- 2 Appearance
- 3 History of appearance / discovery
- 4 Habitat
- 5 Species
- 5.1 Common Goldfish
- 5.2 Telescope (telescope goldfish)
- 5.3 Goldfish Butterfly (Goldfish Butterfly tail)
- 5.4 Wakin (Goldfish Wakin)
- 5.5 Bubble Eye (Goldfish Bubble Eye)
- 5.6 Veiltail Goldfish
- 5.7 Pearl (Goldfish Pearlscale)
- 5.8 Stargazer (Celestial Eye Goldfish)
- 5.9 Comet (Goldfish Comet)
- 5.10 Izumo Nankin Goldfish
- 5.11 Oranda (Oranda Goldfish)
- 5.12 Red cap Oranda Goldfish
- 5.13 Pompom
- 5.14 Ranchu (Ranchu Goldfish)
- 5.15 Lionhead (Lionhead Goldfish)
- 5.16 Nymph (Fantail Goldfish)
- 5.17 Ryukin (Ryukin Goldfish)
- 5.18 Jikin (Goldfish Jikin)
- 5.19 Tosakin (Tosakin Goldfish)
- 5.20 Shubunkin (Shubunkin Goldfish)
- 6 Care and maintenance
- 7 Compatibility
- 8 Feeding
- 9 Breeding
The goldfish got its name, first of all, for the color of the scales: the standard body color is reddish-golden, often with a metallic tint. There is also a version that the fish were nicknamed gold for their high value at the time when they just came to our country. Nowadays, goldfish for aquarium farming are bred on an industrial scale on special fish farms, so there is no difficulty in getting almost any kind of goldfish in your aquarium.
Man has been keeping and breeding goldfish for several millennia. During this time, a huge number of varieties were developed, differing both in the color of the scales and in the shape of the body. Looking at all this riot of bright colors and unusual forms of goldfish, it is difficult to believe that a simple gray fish from the Karpov family became their ancestor.
Depending on the breed, a goldfish may have an elongated, laterally compressed, or short body with a rounded abdomen. Each representative of goldfish can find enlarged gill covers, hard notches on the first fin rays, and pharyngeal teeth – additional jaws in the throat or pharynx.
The structure of the scales of goldfish also depends on the breed characteristics: they can be large, small, or absent altogether in separate areas.
The most popular body color of a goldfish is red and gold, but there are also forms with a different color: bronze, black, spotted, bluish, etc. The abdomen of a goldfish is always colored lighter than the back.
The fin variation is also quite wide. The caudal fin can be single, bifurcated, veiled, or have another unusual shape. The dorsal fin of a goldfish is short, veil, or may be absent altogether. The eyes are large, slightly convex. Some breeds can be greatly enlarged and have a bizarre shape.
The minimum size of an adult goldfish in good conditions is rarely less than 15 cm. Individual breeds can grow up to 30 cm. Goldfish are considered long-livers among fish. The average life expectancy is 13-15 years. The record for the lifetime in the aquarium belongs to the English goldfish named Tish, who lived for 43 years.
Sexual dimorphism in goldfish is not expressed, a female and a male can be determined only during preparation for spawning.
History of appearance / discovery
The inhabitants of ancient China had an extensive culture of keeping wild fish in a variety of cages and barrels. Periodically came across very beautiful bright representatives, which were used for further breeding. Also, the emergence of unusual forms contributed to the spread of Buddhism. According to the canons, it was strictly forbidden to kill fish, even physically inferior ones. They were settled in special “merciful ponds”, where they lived out their lives until they died for natural reasons.
The first written references to the “red carp” are found already in Chinese sources of the 3rd – 4th centuries. Probably, these were individual mutations of silver carp with reddish body color. The appearance of such fish was episodic in nature. Most likely, the characteristic stable red color was obtained as a result of selection work in VII-VIII.
After the 960s, goldfish became popular pets. Only wealthy people could support them at that time since they had enough space for arranging private ponds and pools.
Gradually, the demand for goldfish increased, the price fell, and gradually in many Chinese homes, they became ordinary pets.
Initially, the fish spread to Indochina, at the beginning of the XVI century came to Japan. Local breeders have bred a large number of new breeds of goldfish and have become recognized leaders in this field.
The first goldfish came to Europe in the 17th century. At first, their cost was very high, and only the wealthiest people could afford to keep goldfish. A century later, goldfish spread widely throughout Europe.
The first evidence of the appearance of goldfish in Russia dates back to the XV-XVI centuries, usually, it was gifted from foreign ambassadors. But the wide distribution of fish begins in the XVII century during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, and later his son – Peter I.
Nowadays, a wide selection of goldfish species is available to aquarists, which are grown on specialized fish farms (mainly in the countries of Southeast Asia).
Since the existing goldfish are the result of the breeding of goldfish, it is not possible to meet them in their natural habitats. The offspring of goldfish released into a natural body of water usually degenerates into its original form over several generations.
Goldfish (Carassius auratus) – a form of crucian carp, artificially bred from silver crucian in China. Mention of the “golden fish” (goldfish) is first found in Chinese annals, the natural range of this species includes the rivers of the southern Chinese provinces.
Silver crucian carp (formerly Carassius auratus, now Carassius gibelio) – the wild ancestral form of the goldfish – was originally distributed in the waters of Central Asia and Siberia, as well as in the lower reaches of the Aral Sea. Later, crucian carp was artificially settled in many reservoirs in Europe and Siberia. Food for him are plants, detritus, small crustaceans, and insects. At the beginning of the 16th century, these fish were first exported to Japan and China, where they decorated the imperial gardens.
In some reservoirs, only females of silver carp live, which breed with males of related species of fish (roach, crucian carp, tench, bream, carp, and others). At the same time, spermatozoa of closely related species stimulate the development of eggs, hybrids are not formed, and only females appear in the offspring, supporting the existing population.
In appearance, gold and silver crucian carp are similar. In some reservoirs, these species live together. In this case, gradual displacement of gold crucian with silver occurs. Silver and goldfish can interbreed and produce hybrids that are found in some bodies of water.
There is a problem of introducing aquarium goldfish into the natural environment. So, in Australia, some aquarists released their fish into natural water bodies, where they reached a considerable size on a rich forage base. The largest of these individuals had a mass of 1.9 kg. At the same time, goldfish pose a threat to the rest of the inhabitants of the reservoir – they quickly eat higher plants and algae, which creates a shortage of feed, can destroy the eggs of other fish, and spread infections.
The number of breeding breeds of goldfish is simply amazing, at the moment there are more than 300. Hundreds of years of various crossings and careful selection have contributed to such great diversity. Some breeds were obtained due to keeping fish in terrible conditions: aquariums with large overpopulation, very warm water with rare changes, abundant feeding of natural high-protein feeds. This led to outbreaks of infections, due to which the abdomen of goldfish swelled, creating the prerequisites for genetic changes, which were subsequently fixed by selection.
Initially, 4 main breeds were created: Ryukin, Wakin, Ranchu, and Telescope, from the various variations of which the whole variety of modern variations was derived. All breeding goldfish are divided into two large groups: long-bodied (comet, wakin, etc.) and short-bodied (telescope, oranda, etc.). The first group is closest to the original form, the differences are usually in the shape and size of the fins. The rocks of the second group underwent much more significant changes affecting the whole body of the fish. Due to major changes in all organs, the lifespan of such forms is greatly reduced.
An interesting direction in the selection of goldfish is the breeding of species with eyes looking up. This is due to the historical traditions of placing fish. In Europe, they are used to watching goldfish from the side, and in Asian countries from the top.
This breed is closest to its natural form – silver crucian carp and actually differs from it only in color. The body is elongated, the color is bright, red-orange. Less common are variants of red color with black spots and chintz – red-black-and-white. Scales have a pronounced metallic luster. The tail fin of a goldfish is single, short. Abdominal and thoracic – paired. It requires space for swimming, so an aquarium is desirable with a long length. They grow up to 30 cm. Under good conditions, a goldfish is able to live from 10 to 30 years.
Telescope (telescope goldfish)
The telescope goldfish is one of the most popular and unusual breeds of goldfish. The first copies were bred in China in the 18th century, after which Japan took over. Telescopes have many unusual synonymous names. In the Land of the Rising Sun, a fish is usually called a demekin. In many Asian countries, you can find the name Dragon Fish or Dragon Eye. The names speak for themselves and emphasize the key feature of the fish – highly developed eyes that sit on special stems and protrude some distance from the skull. The rest is a standard short-bodied goldfish with a bifurcated tail fin. It should be noted that juveniles do not have characteristic bulging eyes, they begin to appear only six months from the moment of birth. In some telescopes, the stems can be up to 2 cm long. Currently, several types of eyes are distinguished in telescopes:
The domed eyes, hemispherical, partially protrude (Dome Eyes).
Flat eyes have a cylindrical shape with a flat surface (Flat Eyes).
The eyes protrude completely and resemble a sphere (Globe Eyes).
There are a large number of color forms and variations. Individuals with completely black color are especially valued. In the United States, they are called Black Moor Goldfish. Our compatriots noted in the creation of one of the most beautiful forms of the telescope: at the end of the 19th century, a stable version of the telescope with black color and a long tail was obtained. It was called the Moscow Black Telescope. It was popular in Russia and abroad. In 1941, an amateur aquarist Andrianov obtained a black telescope with bright red eyes.
Goldfish Butterfly (Goldfish Butterfly tail)
The breed appeared on sale about 40 years ago and is a type of telescope. A distinctive feature is the double caudal fin, which resembles the wings of a butterfly when viewed from above. The eyes of the fish are bulging. The color can be varied: for example, black and white (“Panda”), red and black specks (“Little Panda”), etc. When kept in an aquarium, do not install decorations with sharp edges – eyes and tail may suffer. The size is about 10 cm. Life expectancy is 10-15 years.
Wakin (Goldfish Wakin)
Large goldfish for large aquariums and ornamental ponds, grows up to 20 cm or more. This breed can be considered the progenitor of many forms of goldfish. Divorced in Japan since the beginning of the XVII century. The body is torpedo-shaped, the tail is bifurcated. Koi differs from carp in the absence of antennae. In addition to the caudal fin, a peculiarity is an unusual color – large red-orange or yellow spots on a white background. The bright red color is considered the most valuable. They can live in an aquarium for up to 20 years.
Bubble Eye (Goldfish Bubble Eye)
One of the most unusual breeds of goldfish. The body is ovoid, the tail is bifurcated. A feature is the presence of two bubbles hanging on the sides under the eyes, filled with liquid. They can reach up to ¼ body size. The color is diverse, you can find: red-orange, chintz, black, pink, etc. They form in young goldfish closer to two years of age. Eyes up, dorsal fin absent. When kept in an aquarium, it should be remembered that bags of liquid may burst. Subsequently, they will recover but may vary in size. In addition, an infection can get into the wound, so it is recommended to set the scenery without sharp edges for goldfish. Bubble eyes are a very delicate goldfish and are susceptible to bacterial and fungal diseases. Maximum size up to 13 cm., Life expectancy up to 15 years.
One of the most beautiful pedigree forms, but rather capricious goldfish, which has specific features in the content. A distinctive feature of this breed is its fins. They are long and thin, reach large sizes and look like a veil. The body is shortened, the abdomen is round. The dorsal fin of a goldfish is well developed, can reach a size of 6 cm. The caudal and anal fin are bifurcated. There are a variety of colors: white, red-orange, chintz, etc. It has a tendency to certain diseases. Very often, golden veil tails show problems with a swimming bladder. This is explained by the fact that selection followed the path of the selection of individuals with a shortened body. Consequently, all internal organs are also modified and condensed. A reduced swim bladder may sometimes not be able to cope with its functions. The chic tail fin of the goldfish of the veil-tail is their pride and their burden: prone to numerous injuries, it can serve as a breeding ground for bacterial and fungal infections. In the aquarium, they grow up to 18 cm and live, on average, 10-15 years.
Pearl (Goldfish Pearlscale)
This relatively young breed of goldfish (bred at the beginning of the 19th century) has an almost perfect spherical body. The head is small and narrow. The scales on the body have a dark outline and stand out in contrast, on the side they look like droplets. The classic color option for a goldfish pearl is red-orange, but on sale, you can find a wide range of colors: blue, black, white with various color splashes. There are breeds with caps similar to orandas. In an aquarium, the size of the fish does not exceed 10 cm. It is considered a fairly hardy breed, but when kept it is necessary to take into account slowness and clumsiness: the goldfish may not get food.
Stargazer (Celestial Eye Goldfish)
Another popular name for this goldfish is Sky Eye. Species: the complete absence of the dorsal fin and the presence of protruding eyes, similar to the eyes of a telescope, with only one difference – in the stargazer the eyes are directed upwards. It was first obtained in China at the beginning of the XIX century, a century later it was imported to Japan, where local breeders brought the breed of goldfish to modern standards. It has a shortened, egg-shaped body. Anal and caudal fins bifurcated. There are several color variations: black, orange, gray, etc. The special structure of the organs of vision imposes a number of restrictions on the content: decorations with sharp edges cannot be used in the aquarium and active fish that can damage the eyes cannot be used in neighbors. An interesting fact: at a young age, the eyes of the fish are located normally, but change as they grow. The size of the fish in the aquarium does not exceed 13 cm.
Comet (Goldfish Comet)
The breed has a torpedo-shaped body, elongated fins, and a long single tail with deep bifurcation. It is a further development of the classic goldfish. It was bred in the USA and is one of the hardiest forms. For a comet, it is necessary to provide a suitable aquarium from 40 liters, preferably of elongated shape: a goldfish likes to swim very actively. They are prone to jumping, so the aquarium must be covered with a lid. The classic combination of colors is red and white, but you can find forms of silver, pearl, white, etc. The average size in the content is 10 cm, life expectancy is up to 14-15 years
Izumo Nankin Goldfish
This breed of goldfish was created by Japanese breeders in the mid-18th century. The name of the fish, most likely, is associated with the large Chinese port city of Nanjing, once the former capital of the state. The original producers for the creation of this breed were also exported to Japan from this city. And since in those days it was common practice to name any product that came to the country by the name of the city where the cargo came from, then the name Nankin was also assigned to goldfish. Nowadays, it is very difficult to purchase this fish outside of Japan, as the government of the country classified the breed as one of the specially protected, which led to a sharp decline in exports. Izumo Nankin has an egg-shaped body, a forked short tail. The dorsal fin is absent. The average body size is 13 cm. The classic color is copper-red, with red fins and a head. On the basis of traditional Nankin, two variations with unusual names were derived: “White duck egg” (the body is completely white, the fins are pinkish, the gill covers and the bases of the fins are bright red) and “The Egg of the Black Dragon” (velvet black color, bulging eyes and warty “ hat “on the head).
Oranda (Oranda Goldfish)
A characteristic feature of the oranda goldfish is a leathery growth (resembling a hat), which differs in color from the main body color. It is laid for 3-4 months of fish life and finishes formation by two years. Also, growths can happen on the gill covers. The body shape of goldfish may vary: the Japanese prefer more elongated individuals, while in China short-bodied varieties are popular. The abdomen is round, the fins of the goldfish are clearly bifurcated and often very long. Color has a wide range of variations: red, black, blue, and various combinations thereof. The “Little Red Riding Hood” variation stands out – its body is completely white, the tubercle on its head is bright red. In the East, goldfish are very much appreciated; they are called nothing more than “Aquatic flowers”. There are interesting hybrids, for example, Oranda the dragon’s eye has a body of oranda and eyes, like a telescope. Goldfish are quite sensitive to water quality, so when you care for them you need to regularly monitor its parameters. The hilly surface of the “cap” is sensitive to contamination – dirt, getting between the folds, can cause fish infection. Properly organized filtration is the key to success in keeping goldfish.
Red cap Oranda Goldfish
The most recognizable variation of the Oranda goldfish. The body is shortened, the abdomen is round, the fins are large and bifurcated. Body color is white. On the top of the head is a warty outgrowth of bright red color. The growth is laid at 3-4 months of life and reaches its maximum size at the age of 2 years. Oranda goldfish are sensitive to water quality and temperature. In the aquarium, they reach a size of 15-20 cm.
The pompom is currently considered not as a separate breed, but rather as a trait that may appear in some breeding breeds of goldfish. In this regard, in 1987, it was decided to divide fish with a similar feature into two main groups: Japanese pompons (this includes species with dorsal fin) and Chinese pompons (species without dorsal fin). The group of goldfish got its name for an interesting feature: their nasal valves are greatly enlarged (in the usual state they are invisible) and form fluffy growths of various shapes and sizes on two sides of the mouth, but very reminiscent of pompons. They can be red, white, brown, and blue. The most valuable are individuals in which the color of the pompons differs from the main body color. Unfortunately, fish do not have such popularity as other breeds, but in aquariums of goldfish connoisseurs, you can also find it.
Ranchu (Ranchu Goldfish)
This breed is one of the most popular in Japan and China. The ranch has a massive rounded short body. The back is wide, strongly curved towards the tail. In general, this breed of goldfish is very similar to a lion head, however, the latter has a more developed caudal fin and a more even back. The tail is small, sometimes divided into several parts. The classic and most popular color of the goldfish is a white body with dots and red head growths. The breed was bred in the Land of the Rising Sun at the end of the 19th century and at first, did not have head tubercles resembling raspberries in structure. Subsequent crosses and selection led to the fact that now the standard of the breed secured the presence of growths. This brings the ranch and lionhead breeds very close together, sometimes it can be very difficult to determine which particular breed a particular fish belongs to. For maintenance, a species aquarium is best suited. The unusual body shape does not allow goldfish to actively swim in the water column, so active related breeds are not suitable for joint maintenance. Goldfish ranchu does not like lowering temperatures, so the content in decorative ponds is not recommended.
Lionhead (Lionhead Goldfish)
Very similar to the Ranchu breed. The body is short, round. There are growths covering most of the head of the fish, up to the point that they can completely close the eyes, nostrils, and mouth. For the outward resemblance to the mane of a lion, goldfish got their name. You can find a variety of colors: red, blue, black, as well as numerous combinations. The goldfish is sensitive to water parameters, scenery with sharp edges cannot be used. Lionhead is slow, with cohabitation with active species of fish that can remain without food. The average size in the aquarium is up to 13 cm.
Nymph (Fantail Goldfish)
These decorative goldfish are frequent guests at a variety of exhibitions. Nymphs are distinguished primarily by a large caudal fin. The most valuable individuals have a fully forked tail, similar to a triangle when viewed from above. The anal fin is divided similarly. The red-orange color of goldfish is the most popular, but there are forms and other colors. Despite the high decorative qualities, the nymph goldfish is quite hardy. It can be kept both in the aquarium and in open decorative ponds in the summer. Even smooth temperature drops to 4-5 ° C are not scared for her. The average size of nymphs in the aquarium is 10-15 cm. The Japanese form of the nymph goldfish is called Ryukin.
Ryukin (Ryukin Goldfish)
The Ryukin breed (also spelled Ryukin) was created by Japanese breeders. The name translates as “Gold of Ryukyu” – it was from this archipelago that the first forms were delivered, which became the basis for further selection. Compared to other goldfish, it is distinguished by a dense short body with a characteristic bend of the back – a hump extending from the head to the dorsal fin. The latter, in turn, must be strictly vertical and reach a height of 1/3 of the body. It is very similar to the crest on the helmets of the Roman legionnaires. The tail fin of the goldfish is bifurcated; other fins have rounded ends. The value of an individual depends, not least, on the length of the fins. Individuals with a monochromatic color or spots are found. Perhaps keeping goldfish in ponds.
Jikin (Goldfish Jikin)
One of the rarest breeds of goldfish. He is a relative of Ryukin and inherited from him a short body with a rounded abdomen. A distinctive feature is the structure of the caudal fin. It is divided into four parts and when viewed from the rear, they resemble the Latin letter “X” (X). In English-speaking countries, it is called the “Peacock Tail”. The second unusual sign of this goldfish is color. Red spots are located on a white background of the body, and are located strictly in certain places: mouth, fins: ventral, anal and dorsal, gill covers, tail, area near the anal fin. Such a color is considered a reference, but it is extremely difficult to obtain such individuals when breeding. Therefore, breeders usually go for a trick: excess pigments are removed, and the missing ones are added by injection. Average fish size up to 15 cm.
Tosakin (Tosakin Goldfish)
The breed was bred in Japan in the middle of the XIX century, but a century later, it almost sank into oblivion. According to one version, this was due to the fact that the breed did not leave the borders of its province for a long time. At the end of World War II, the province was subjected to massive bombing, and in 1946 it survived a major earthquake. As a result of these events, almost all tosakins were destroyed. However, the collector Hiro Tomura accidentally discovered six surviving individuals in one of the restaurants in Kochi and exchanged them for a bottle of alcohol. Thus, the breed was saved and later restored.
A specific feature of tosakins is the special shape of the tail. It is completely fused and, when viewed from above, folds into an almost even circle. These fish were specially bred for observation from above. The body is short, egg-shaped. Coloring can be red, orange, and silver in various combinations. Due to the short body, this goldfish swims rather awkwardly. When keeping it, it is very important that there is no strong current in the aquarium
Shubunkin (Shubunkin Goldfish)
Another close relative of the natural form, which inherited from her stamina and unpretentiousness in nutrition. The body has a torpedo shape, the tail fin is single, dissected. The goldfish is painted very colorfully: on a white background, there may be large spots of various colors, as well as small spots throughout the body. The size in the aquarium reaches more than 10 cm. It is possible to keep it in a decorative pond. There is a very interesting color variation of Shubunkin – Shubunkin Bristolsky (Goldfish Bristol Shubunkin), obtained in the UK. The goldfish has a modified tail fin, it is rounded and resembles a heart. The main color of the scales is blue, with colored splashes.
Care and maintenance
A large aquarium is required to keep goldfish. This is due to the large size of the fish (some individuals can grow up to 20-30 cm) and their activity. The minimum recommended volume is 50 liters per individual. Classic rectangular aquariums with a height of not more than 50 cm are preferred. Long-bodied breeds of goldfish, such as comets, are better suited for an aquarium elongated in length: so they will have more space for active swimming. As a soil, it is best to use rounded pebbles, since goldfish love to dig into it. The size must be selected so that the fish could not swallow the pebbles. When designing an aquarium, it should be remembered that some breeds of goldfish with modified eyes (telescopes, stargazers, bubble eyes) can easily damage the organs of vision, so the scenery should not have sharp edges. Goldfish swim in all layers of water.
Goldfish have gained the fame of aquarium “dirties”, and there is some truth to this – the fish are active and rather voracious, therefore, they release a lot of waste into the water, and they also constantly raise cloudiness, digging in the ground, so good filtration and aeration are very important for them. It is recommended to use powerful canister external filters for water purification. The nitrifying bacteria that live on the filter sponges and special substrates will decompose to convert ammonia, which is dangerous for fish, into practically safe nitrate. Modern compressors can easily enrich the water with the right amount of oxygen, which is necessary for both fish and beneficial bacteria for their life. Do not forget about regular water changes: weekly you need to change 25-30% of the water to fresh, this will not allow harmful compounds to accumulate in the water.
Goldfish are cold-water species. This means that the optimum temperature for their maintenance will be 18-23 ° C in the summer and 15-18 ° C in the winter. In the summer, many goldfish are able to live in decorative ponds in the open air without any problems. Thus, when keeping goldfish, you can not use a thermostat. Water hardness should be in the range of 8-25 ° dGH, acidity – 6.0-8.0. It follows that goldfish are quite hardy and able to live in a wide range of water parameters. It should be noted that modern breeding species are more sensitive to water parameters, therefore, recommendations on their content are best followed with great attention.
If necessary, salt can be added to goldfish (5-7 g / l), they can easily tolerate a slight increase in water salinity.
Gold fish love plucking tender leaves of aquatic plants. Therefore, when kept in an aquarium, it is best to use hard-leaved or fast-growing species (for example, anubias, elodea, giant vallisneria, some Cryptocoryne). It is worth remembering that goldfish are very fond of tedding the soil, so plants need to be planted so that pets have no way to get to the roots. Often when keeping them, aquarists opt for artificial plants.
A species aquarium will be ideal for keeping goldfish, that is, it is best to plant a school of fish of one species in a container of suitable volume. It should be borne in mind that it is better not to mix rocks with a long and short body. Long-bodied species are more active and can damage neighbors fins or eyes.
The difficulty of combining with other species is also due to the difference in temperature optimums in cold-water fish (gold) and tropical (most of the other ornamental fish). For the second group, the preferred water temperature is 24-28 ° C, which is the upper limit for goldfish, warm water is less comfortable for them.
If the aquarist decided on the joint maintenance of goldfish with other species, then do not select too small fish in the neighbors that can be eaten by goldfish. Active fish that can bite fins, for example, many types of barbs, will not be the best choice. Breeds such as comets can coexist with non-aggressive medium-sized cichlids.
Goldfish belong to omnivorous fish. This means that both animals and plant components must be present in their diet. The fish are unpretentious in food and are able to eat any kind of food: dry, live, frozen. As a plant top dressing, dry foods with a high content of spirulina, as well as floating plants (duckweed, wolffia, riccia) are used. Some aquarists practice feeding goldfish with cereals: semolina, wheat, rice, etc. But such products can lead to poor water quality. Read this article if you want to know more about aquarium food types.
The dry food used for feeding goldfish should be fully balanced, nutritious, well digested. The latter is especially important since non-absorbed substances will get into the water with fish waste and can cause the accumulation of toxic nitrogen compounds.
It is necessary to feed the goldfish several times a day in small portions, which will be eaten by the fish in a few minutes.
Goldfish become sexually mature by the first year of life. However, when breeding, the best age for selecting producers is between 2 and 4 years old. The older the female, the more eggs she can sweep. Large individuals can swap up to 3000 eggs. Spawning can occur several times a year. When breeding selection species it is necessary to pay great attention to the quality of producers: they select the best available individuals, with maximum compliance with the breed standard.
Sexual dimorphism in goldfish is not pronounced. Determining the male and the female becomes possible only at the onset of the mating season. In natural habitats, it falls at the end of spring (April-May). During preparation for spawning, the appearance of both males and females changes: on the gill covers one can find small pearly tubercles of a rounded shape, called tubercles, and on the pectoral fins, small saw-like notches appear. In ready-to-spawn females of goldfish, the abdomen increases in size, while males actively pursue females, driving them into dense vegetation and performing characteristic punches into the anus.
For spawning, an aquarium of 40 liters with good aeration and lighting is suitable. The water level should be about 20 cm. Producers often eat their eggs, so at a height of 1-2 cm from the bottom, it is recommended to install a grid with a large cell or use dense thickets of living plants in the aquarium. The incentive to spawn is an increase in temperature and a large change of water (more than 1/3).
The eggs have a size of about 1 mm, at first translucent with a yellowish tinge. After a few days, the laid eggs turn pale and become indistinguishable, and unfertilized ones become covered with a fungus and turn white. Infected eggs of goldfish must be removed, and healthy caviar should be treated with an antifungal agent such as methylene blue.
On day 2-6, larvae appear from the eggs, which are motionless between plants and receive food from the yolk sac. Usually, they are in the upside down position. Hatching duration depends on water temperature and light exposure. After the supply of nutrients is exhausted, the fry of a goldfish swims to the surface of the water in order to fill their swimming bladder with air, after which they have the opportunity to take a horizontal position. Then the fry begins to move actively in search of food. The starting food can be artemia nauplii, rotifers, or “live dust”, as well as high-quality dry food for fry. It is necessary to feed the fry often, up to 3-6 times a day. As you grow, the number of feeds decreases.
The initial coloring of the fry of goldfish is very reminiscent of its ancestor – silver carp. The breed color appears in juveniles at the age of 2-3 months.
As the goldfish grow, it is necessary to sort according to the necessary external characteristics. The fact is that in the offspring, splitting according to morphological characters is very often observed and in some cases fry do not have the expected breed characteristics. Such “cleanings” help to discard individuals that do not meet standards. In addition, sorting helps to relieve the aquarium and prevent fry from being pulled in.
Young thoroughbred goldfish are very sensitive to water quality and are prone to some disease, so you need to strictly monitor the condition of the growing aquarium.
Thank you for reading the article to the end, I hope the information was useful to you.