- 1 Goldfish care
- 2 Goldfish Feeding
- 3 Enemies and diseases of goldfish
- 4 Goldfish treatment
- 5 Goldfish compatibility with other aquarium animals
Goldfish lives at room temperature and do not require heating. In small vessels with fish, abundant aeration of water is necessary – air purging. Perhaps keeping with other non-predatory species of fish, especially those with a tendency to bite fins. It should be remembered that the decorative species of goldfish are poorly adapted to competition, including for food.
Goldfish are best kept in a large aquarium (200 liters and more). You can certainly use 50 liters, but as the practice and experience of many aquarists shows, in large aquariums, goldfish feel better, grow larger. The number of individuals is approximately 1 fish per 40-50 liters.
The soil in the aquarium is better to use either coarse-grained or fine-grained, because goldfish constantly sort out pebbles, and can eat them. It is also necessary to watch that the soil is not with sharp edges, as fingering it, the pebble may get stuck in the fish’s mouth, and you will have to sweat a little to pull out this pebble with tweezers. This rarely happens, but it’s still better not to do it.
For the scenery, it is necessary to refrain from the following elements: castles, ships, etc., because fish can damage themselves and fins, and eyes, and much more. I will say, for example, that as the author of this article once, during the absence of the Internet, did not know this, and my goldfish was half stuck in one of the towers of the castle. When I pulled her out, she already had blood swelling on her body and swam overturning. And the fish died in 2 days.
Plants are better used live, although many recommend artificial ones. I want to say the following: goldfish love to eat plants because Plants contain many useful and necessary trace elements.
Therefore, sometimes it happens that a lush underwater garden turns into a deserted forest that looks like after a tornado or something like that, some columns and no leaves. In order to prevent the vegetation from being completely eaten, you can use hard-leaved plants that goldfish do not touch – Nomaphila stricta, anubias, cryptocorynes, echinodorus, etc. Such plants will not be eaten and will serve as additional environmental stabilizers in the aquarium.
Digging in the ground, the fish each time do not pull out plants with a root, when they are planted, the bottom around the roots can be covered with larger rounded pebbles over the ground.
Important! Do not use hard plants with sharp and cutting leaves in the aquarium with goldfish, as they can damage the fish.
The temperature in the aquarium should be in the range of 21-24 ° C. Although these fish tolerate cool water (from 10 ° C), they do not look very good at this temperature. You also need to consider that at too high a temperature (26-28 ° C), the fish age faster. In general, the temperature range of the content of goldfish is 10-28 ° C.
Important! Such fish as telescopes, Ranchu, and Lionheads are considered as more heat-loving fish (temperature 25 ° С).
In an aquarium with goldfish, you must have good aeration of the water, because they love high oxygen water. It is also necessary to have a good filter, as goldfish “litter” a lot, although they themselves love clean water.
The hardness limits of water (dH) are 6–20 °, and acidity (pH) is 5–8.
You need to feed the gold fish one or two times a day in small portions so that everything is eaten in 5-10 minutes or less (if you feed twice a day, respectively, halve the portions). Overfeeding is a very common problem when keeping these fish, it can easily lead to various diseases, primarily related to the gastrointestinal tract.
Goldfish are omnivores. Therefore, the diet for them should be varied. It includes live food (you need to be careful with it, often pathogens of dangerous diseases get into the aquarium along with live food; frozen food is safer in this regard), and plant food, and specialized goldfish food, manufactured by several manufacturers (for example, firms Sera, Tetra).
Dry food (both flakes, and in particular granules), before feeding, it is advisable to soak for several minutes in a saucer with aquarium water. Otherwise, there is a risk that swollen feed particles after eating will provoke an upset digestive system.
Various plant foods, such as lettuce, cucumber, dill, cabbage, nettle, etc., must also be added to the diet. All this is blanched, finely cut, and served to fish. Adult fish are able to eat, for example, lettuce, without scalding, and sometimes without the need for small slices. Fruits (orange, kiwi, etc.) will also be a good dietary supplement.
Good plant food is also some aquarium plants – duckweed, Riccia, Ceratophyllum. Ceratophyllum is doubly useful due to the fact that being a fast-growing, it intensively absorbs nitrogen from the water, thereby contributing to a decrease in the concentration of nitrates.
Adult fish receiving a balanced diet can tolerate even a two-week hunger strike without any problems. And one of the ways not to leave fish on a starvation diet during a vacation or a business trip, if there is no person who could feed the fish, is to put a hornwort in the aquarium. This food is enough for fish for a long time.
Many experts recommend introducing into the diet cereals cooked from various cereals in water (without salt). It is desirable that these cereals have a crumbly structure.
Enemies and diseases of goldfish
When kept in an aquarium, goldfish have practically no enemies, except for the owner himself. Only through his oversight can various kinds of destroyers get into the aquarium. The first who can cause great damage is cyclops. It can not be given in large quantities, otherwise not eaten, it attacks the fry. Another dangerous enemy is the dragonfly larva. She can destroy up to 2000 fry in a week. Also, hydra can cause tangible damage.
For adults, leeches, Dytiscidae, and domestic cats are dangerous, which very skillfully pushes them out of the open aquarium with their paw.
The goldfish should always be protected from stray dogs, stray cats, and water rats. And the scourge of large reservoirs – crows, jackdaws, magpies, gulls, Pochards, ducks, geese and other waterfowl. The health of goldfish is determined by their mobility, color brightness, the luster of scales, and appetite. There is another “indicator” by which you can immediately determine the condition of the fish: if the fish holds the dorsal fin vertically, then everything is fine.
As soon as you notice one of the signs of the disease, immediately put aside all cases and carefully observe the diseased fish. Carefully inspect it, try to correctly identify the disease, and only then proceed to treatment.
Goldfish do not have so many diseases that are talked about and written about. But if trouble happens, then the fish should be transferred to a spacious isolator (50 l) and treated. My reader may not seem seditious, but if the method described below does not help, then you should not torture the fish, since all other methods of treatment, if not immediately, will soon send it to the next world. Of course, there are new medicines that help save the diseased fish, but as a producer, it will be lost forever.
All vaunted antibiotics and other chemically strong drugs contribute to the infertility of goldfish.
If you find on your goldfish deposits in the form of semolina, formations that look like lumps of cotton wool, fins stick together or notice that the fish is jerking, rubs against objects, breathing is disturbed, red fins immediately isolate it.
A sick fish is treated in salt water (3-5 g of table salt per 1 liter of water) at a low temperature (not higher than 18 C).
Treatment is carried out in a spacious aquarium for three days, changing the solution daily. The water should be clean, taken not from the aquarium, but from the water supply. If the disease is difficult to treat, then additionally, 1-2 times a day they bathe a sick fish in a pink solution (1 g per 100 l of water) potassium permanganate for 10 – 15 minutes. In a similar way, injured fish are treated that quite often are injured during transportation, transplanting, and cleaning the aquarium.
During treatment, water is abundantly aerated. Sick fish during this period are not fed, only very weak and fry are fed with small live bloodworms once a day. Water from the aquarium in which the disease arose is completely drained, the soil is washed with hot water, the walls of the aquarium are wiped with salt and washed repeatedly with running water.
Cloudiness of goldfish scales.
The causative agent of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis ( white spot disease )is a small Ciliate. Symptoms of the disease. The affected areas on the body of the fish appear rough, dull when the fish is illuminated by a ray of light directed from below. The disease is dangerous because it entails other, more complex diseases.
The disease flares up from bacteria that multiply abundantly from not eaten food.
Symptoms of the disease. The fish loses its brightness, covered with whitish mucus, constantly scratching on stones. The best cure for the disease is a complete change of water.
Fungal disease of freshwater fish. It is secondary and appears on a fish whose body is weakened as a result of some disease, injury, or poor living conditions. The causative agent is mold fungi from the genus Saprolegnia.
Symptoms of the disease. White thin strings (hyphae) appear perpendicularly from her body in separate parts of the body, fins, and gills of the fish. If during this period no measures are taken to eliminate the cause of the disease, then the fungus will quickly develop and become like a cotton-like plaque. Fungus braids the skin cells and gills, growing into muscles and internal organs. The fish becomes inactive and falls to the bottom.
For the treatment of goldfish, in addition to salt baths, therapeutic lotions of the following solutions are also used:
– 0.1% potassium permagnate (1 g of crystalline KMnCL per 1 liter of water);
– 0.05% tripaflavin (0.5 g of tripaflavin powder per 1 liter of water).
Lotions with a 1.5 – 2% solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) should be discarded since the concentration of the solution is excessive.
Treatment solutions are prepared before each procedure. The operation is performed 2 times a day. The method is used not only for severe damages with Saprolegnia, but also for the treatment of damaged sites with leeches, Lernaea, and others.
Do not allow the treatment solution to enter the gills!
Dropsy (Ascites) of goldfish. The disease consists mainly of raising the scales and swelling of the body. The cause of its occurrence is the bacillus of the Crayfish plague (Aphanomyces astaci), which multiplies in the blood, which causes universal infection. Sometimes a fish dies before the scales rise. Infection occurs through the skin of the wound, embossed scales. An early detected disease can be stopped by transferring a sick fish to running water and bathing it in a solution of potassium permanganate every other day for 15 minutes.
But there is another form of dropsy. First of all, the reason is the poisoning of water by some chemically harmful substances. Dropsy in fish occurs when the activity of the heart is weakened, resulting in stagnation of blood, and fluid is released through the walls of blood vessels. Dropsy occurs in fish with kidney disease.
Together with raising the scales in diseased fish, eyeballs bulge out, the abdomen grows, the tail and spine bend. The fish cannot keep the body in balance and therefore lays on the bottom. The disease sometimes lasts for months, but always ends in death.
In an aquarium with running water, this disease is extremely rare.
It was believed that goldfish are not prone to colds. However, from sharp fluctuations in water temperature during transplantation, a significant temperature difference causes irritation of the nerve endings. As a result, functional disorders of the body occur.
Symptoms of the disease. Exfoliation and necrosis of the skin.
Treatment comes down to prevention:
1) temperature differences must not be allowed;
2) increase the temperature of water by 2 – 3 ° C with the addition of methylene blue;
3) enhanced aeration;
4) abundant feeding of plant foods and various live foods with the obligatory inclusion of well-washed earthworms on the menu. With this disease, freshly frozen food (bloodworms, corethra(glassworms), daphnia) should be warmed before giving fish.
Inflammation of the stomach (gastroenteritis).
This disease occurs when overfeeding goldfish with poor-quality food caught in water bodies contaminated with various wastewater, as well as during prolonged feeding with dried daphnia, gammarus and bloodworms, which are poorly absorbed by the body and cause inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of the fish. Lack or absence of vegetable feed also contributes to inflammatory processes.
Symptoms of the disease. Despite a good appetite, the activity of the fish decreases, the stomach swells slightly, the anus becomes red, the excrement is filiform with bloody mucus.
Treatment. The disease is easily treated by fasting for a week. The fish is transferred to an isolator with fresh water with the addition of a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Raise the water temperature by 2 – 3 ° С and increase aeration. The daily water change should be about 10%.
Treatment of goldfish from rolling over.
In addition to the above diseases, a poorly studied disease is found quite often among goldfish.
Symptoms It begins with the fact that the fish can not keep balance and begins to tumble. Tired, hanging at the surface of the water or falling to the bottom.
Some associate this phenomenon with swim bladder disease, others with fin paralysis. The best remedy for the disease is considered to be placing the fish in a reservoir with a low water level (not more than 5 cm), frequent substitution and strong aeration of the water. Abundant feeding with bloodworms and especially daphnia contributes to the recovery of fish. The temperature of the water should be maintained at about 26 ° C.
As the fish recover, the water level should be gradually raised.
Another remedy is bathing with Frangula. Having brewed Frangula bark in a teapot, add it to cold water until a faint brown is obtained. The duration of bathing fish in the solution is 15 minutes.
In an aquarium with sick or weak fish, the water level should not exceed 15 cm!
Goldfish compatibility with other aquarium animals
The issue of compatibility of goldfish must be approached very seriously, because they do not get along well with different types of fish, moreover, some species of goldfish themselves do not get along well with other species of themselves. Representatives of different breeds may not suit each other in temperament, in particular, this applies to the cohabitation of long-bodied and short-bodied goldfish. There is a special conversation about long-bodied goldfish. They are much more mobile than their short-bodied counterparts, most often these fish are schooling and, in addition, are able to grow very large, up to 30 cm, and even more (without taking into account the length of the caudal fin). Therefore, the most comfortable long-bodied goldfish feel in the ponds. When keeping them in an aquarium, it is desirable that its capacity be at least 200 liters. It is recommended to keep long-bodied goldfish, due to their temperament, separate from short-bodied ones. In general, these fish (“ordinary” goldfish, comet, shubunkin) are quite unpretentious, hardy, and not so sensitive to changes in conditions.